Types of Disaster & effect / damages due to Disaster

Types of Disaster

Kinds of Disaster. Various Types of Disaster & effect or damages due to Disaster

Natural Disasters: Unpredictable Disaster – Earthquake, Volcano, Landslides| Predictable Disasters – Cyclone, Droughts | Partially Predictable Disasters – Floods, Landslide.

Man made Disaster : Industry Disasters, Economic Disaster, Social Disasters, Environmental Disasters, Ecological Disasters.

Though, all kinds of disaster require more or less similar skill-sets and rescue-efforts at least a few days after the event, it is important to understand various kinds of disasters. Depending upon the actual nature of disaster, the immediate reaction needs to be different. Also, the first few moments of disasters are distinctly different for each kind of disasters. Thus, understanding of each kind of disaster might also help in identifying the onset of a disastrous event, so that a trained person can undertake some key actions, during the initial few moments. This could have a major impact on the final outcome in terms of amount of final loss.

Natural Disasters – Unpredictable Disasters

These are primarily natural events. It is possible that certain human activities could maybe aid in some of these events, but, by and large, these are mostly natural events.

  1. Earthquakes – Earthquakes refer to shaking of earth. There is continuous activity going on below the surface of the earth. There are several large plates (size of continents) below the surface of the earth, which move (at a very slow speed). As a part of this movement, sometimes, they collide against each other. And, after the collision, they might still continue to push each other. As they continually keep pushing each other, there is a pressure building up – across these plates below the surface. And, then, at a certain time, one of the plates might slide over another. This causes an earthquake. Some earthquakes might be caused by activity above the surface. For example in a mountainous region, there might be a heavy landslide. Due to a huge mass of land falling, at the point of the fall, there could be a minor shaking of earth, due the impact of fall. However, usually, such earthquakes are not very major.
  2. Volcanos – Volcanoes refer to eruption of hot molten lava from below the surface of the earth. As plates move away from each other, at certain places, the surface might get stretched and thinner. In such a situation, the hot molten lava and gaseous substances below this thinned surface could open up a fissure and come out. Typically, these eruptions are always accompanied by discharge of huge amount of gaseous substances, which are various compounds of high toxicity. All eruptions (gaseous or liquid) from a volcano is at high temperature, and, the mouth of a volcano might look like, as if it’s spewing fire. The area around Pacific Ocean is characterized by higher volcanic activity. In fact, the entire rim along the Pacific Ocean is called as the “Ring Of Fire”, because of volcanic activity along this zone. There are a lot of volcanic activities taking place on a continuous basis, across the globe, however, not all of these are serious enough to be termed as disasters. In fact, for most of these – just a moderate level of precaution might be sufficient.
  3. Landslides – Landslides occur in all U.S. states and territories and can be caused by a variety of factors including earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, fire and by human modification of land. Landslides can occur quickly, often with little notice and the best way to prepare is to stay informed about changes in and around your home that could signal that a landslide is likely to occur. In a landslide, masses of rock, earth or debris move down a slope. Debris and mud flows are rivers of rock, earth, and other debris saturated with water. They develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground, during heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt, changing the earth into a flowing river of mud or “slurry.” They can flow rapidly, striking with little or no warning at avalanche speeds. They also can travel several miles from their source, growing in size as they pick up trees, boulders, cars and other materials. Landslide problems can be caused by land mismanagement, particularly in mountain, canyon and coastal regions. In areas burned by forest and brush fires, a lower threshold of precipitation may initiate landslides. Land-use zoning, professional inspections, and proper design can minimize many landslide, mud-flow, and debris flow problems.

Predictable Disasters

  1. Tornadoes, Typhoons, Cyclones – These are winds of high-speed, many times accompanied by heavy rainfall. These cause structural damage, snapped overhead wires, and, possibility of floods. Because of damage to structure and overhead wires, utility services could be disrupted. Heavy rainfall could cause flooding also. Many times, these could last for a few days. In such cases, any restoration and relief activities can not even start till these few days when the activities start subsiding. The only thing good about these kinds of natural disasters is that they can be predicted to a reasonable degree – thanks to the advancement of metro-logical sciences. And, in most cases, its possible to get a warning of up to several days. Usually, it is possible to take at least some preventive measures – during these few days of warning. In most cases, the preventive measure would include: Moving into places which are safer, e.g. buildings which are structurally sound, and, are not prone to flooding. Not venturing out to sea etc for sports, fishing etc. However, in spite of these warnings, damage to property can not be mitigated much, as, immovable structures can not be relocated. Another important thing about these kinds of strong winds and rainfall is that they don’t appear totally at will. There are well-defined geographical areas, which tend to see incidents of typhoons and cyclones. This means that, people inhabiting these areas could take some fundamental care, while, building homes etc. These are: Sturdy home, with very strong foundation and structure. Typically, most people build basements. These basements provide good shelter, and, storage space for food and water to last for a few days for the entire household. Proper embankments to prevent flooding etc. Storage of cement-bags and plastic sheets to prepare additional embankments against flooding, if required. The people who suffer the most are poor people, because: they don’t have the means to build very strong houses, and hence, these houses get blown off/damaged. they don’t have the means to buy and store food and provisions for several days, causing them to take risks of venturing out during heavy winds/rainfalls to make some money. In coastal areas of poor country, fishermen have been known to venture out to sea, even during cyclones etc.
  2. Drought – The word ‘Drought’ is always a difficult one to define, because it is often used in more than one context. In simple terms, it is the absence of water for a long period of time, at a place where it is considered ‘not normal’ compared to its usual conditions. The distribution of all the water on the earth’s surface is not even. Some places have lots of fresh water (rivers, lakes, lagoons, ponds etc.) and are continuously replenished by rainfall, runoffs and water from underground. Others places too are known to have very little water. Therefore, if a region that has lots of rainfall, goes for a couple of weeks without rains, and people, animals and plants begin to experience a bit of dryness, it can be called drought. At the same time, that condition may be very normal for places with no water, and can go for months without any rains with little problems.

Partially predicable Disasters

  1. Floods – Floods refer to huge amount of water reaching land in a short span of time, causing land surface to be submerged under water – at places, where, land surface is usually not covered with water. Floods could be caused due to natural causes, or, human activities, or, a combination of both. Floods are caused by discharge of huge volume of water in a short span of time, at a rate, such that the water can not be carried away from the scene of discharge. Some of the possible reasons for such huge discharge of water could be: very heavy rainfall (say: due to cyclones, typhoons etc.) in a short span of time. It should be noted that the amount of rainfall itself is not a sufficient cause, the duration within which the rainfall is receive is equally important contributor. breach in levy, dams etc. very high tidal waves (sometimes in the aftermath of a seismic activity, e.g. earthquakes) etc. – also called tsunamis.

Man Made Disasters

These are mostly caused due to certain human activities. The disasters themselves could be unintentional, but, are caused due to some intentional activity. Most of these (barring coordinated terrorist activities) are due to certain accidents – which could have been prevented – if sufficient precautionary measures were put in place. Disasters also can be caused by humans. Hazardous materials emergencies include chemical spills and groundwater contamination. Workplace fires are more common and can cause significant property damage and loss of life. Communities are also vulnerable to threats posed by extremist groups who use violence against both people and property. High-risk targets include military and civilian government facilities, international airports, large cities and high-profile landmarks. Cyber-terrorism involves attacks against computers and networks done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people for political or social objectives.

  1. Industrial Disasters- December 3, 1984: The Bhopal disaster in India is one of the largest industrial disasters on record. A runaway reaction in a tank containing poisonous methyl isocyanate caused the pressure relief system to vent large amounts to the atmosphere at a Union Carbide India Limited plant.

Technological disasters are non-natural disastrous occurrences that include:

  • Accident release – Occurring during the production, transportation or handling of hazardous chemical substances
  • Explosions – Disasters will only be classified as explosions when the explosions is the actual disaster. If the explosion is the cause of another disaster, the event will be classified as the resulting disaster.
  • Chemical explosion – Violent destruction caused by explosion of combustible material, nearly always of chemical origin.
  • Nuclear explosion/Radiation – Accidental release of radiation occurring in civil facilities, exceeding the internationally established safety levels.
  • Mine explosion Accidents which occur when natural gas or coal dust reacts with the air.
  • Pollution – Degradation of one or more aspects in the environment by noxious industrial, chemical or biological wastes, from debris or man-made products and from mismanagement of natural and environmental resources.
  • Acid rain – A washout of an excessive concentration of acidic compounds in the atmosphere, resulting from chemical pollutants such as sulphur and nitrogen compounds. When deposited these increase the acidity of the soil and water causing agricultural and ecological damage.
  • Chemical pollution – A sudden pollution of water or air near industrial areas, leading to internal body disorders with permanent damage of the skin.
  • Atmosphere pollution – Contamination of the atmosphere by large quantities of gases, solids and radiation produced by the burning of natural and artificial fuels, chemicals and other industrial processes and nuclear explosions.
  1. Economic Disaster – An Economic Disaster is the widespread disruption or collapse of a national or regional economy, possibly causing financial panic, hoarding, famine, hyperinflation, political upheaval or revolution. Some of these occurrences are short-lived, while others last many years. Economic disasters are rarely the product of purely economic forces such as the implosion of a stock market — political forces, such as an insurgency, and natural forces, such as hurricanes or droughts, can also play roles in speeding a country towards an overall economic disaster.
  2. Social Disasters
  • Awkward Silence
  • The Non-Freudian Slip
  • The Super, Super Delayed Action Realization
  • The Fatal Delay
  • The Paralyzer
  • The Pitchfork in the Road
  • The Unintentional Asshole
  1. Environmental disaster – An environmental disaster is a disaster to the natural environment due to human activity, which distinguishes it from the concept of a natural disaster. It is also distinct from intentional acts of war such as nuclear bombings. Environmental disasters can have an effect on agriculture, biodiversity, the economy and human health. The causes include pollution, depletion of natural resources, industrial activity or agriculture.
  2. Ecological Disasters – The contamination with pesticidal, the petroleum spills in the sea, the dangers of the nuclear radiation and forest fires threaten the Earth ecosystems. It is essential for the defence of the life in the planet that spreads and analyzes the errors that have taken to situations of serious ecological damage.

Others Man Made Disasters :

  1. Nuclear Leaks – These days, nuclear technology is used in several applications. Some of these include: medicinal, power and of-course military. Out of these, nuclear energy based power is getting popular. In any case, because of growth in applications, based on nuclear technology, there are several nuclear installations being found at industrial scale.
  2. Chemical Leaks/Spill over – As the world is making rapid advancements in the field of industrialization, there are huge chemicals plants – dealing with all kinds of chemicals. Some of these chemical plants deal with seemingly simple (non-hazardous) chemicals, while, some other chemicals could be dealing with hazardous materials.
  3. Terrorist Activities – Terrorist activities were traditionally not considered as disasters. However, during the last few years, terrorist activities have become more sophisticated in terms of the amount of detonating power on one side, and, the degree of coordination through which these are done, e.g. Several explosions are done almost simultaneously – thereby leaving the law-enforcement agencies and rescue operations in total confusion and disarray. Further, terrorist activities are now using explosive powers of their victims themselves to create more powerful blasts. e.g. Detonation of bombs kept in vehicles. These vehicles along with their fuels then act as still more powerful bombs. Similarly, in one incident, airplanes were made to collide against buildings. These airplanes with a very high velocity and large amounts of highly combustible fuels acted as a very dangerous combination.
  4. Structural Collapse – Damage to individual buildings/structures. These are relatively minor problems, and, in most cases have a high degree of predictability.

Above notes is belongs to Disaster Management, above notes provides the details of various types of disaster and their effect or damages which helps student in MBA study. This notes useful in syllabus of Srtmun university, Pune university, Amravati university, Nagpur university, Mumbai university, Rohtak university etc.

Challenges of Disaster Management

Challenges of Disaster Management in India

Implications for the Economic, Political, and Security Environments

This essay examines the disaster management challenges in India and assesses the implications of those challenges for that country’s economic, political, and security environments.

Main Findings – In the past two decades, India’s public policy on disaster management has shifted from a focus on relief and rehabilitation efforts to holistic management of disasters. This new policy approach incorporates pre-disaster issues of prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, as well as post-disaster issues of response, recovery, and reconstruction.

  1. New initiatives, such as mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in development, building capacity through education and greater awareness at all levels, and utilizing advanced technologies, have enhanced India’s preparedness for each phase of disaster management.
  2. Unsafe building practices in rapidly growing urban settlements constitute one of India’s greatest challenges for disaster management. A major earthquake in any of India’s densely and heavily populated cities in seismic zones would be catastrophic in terms of fatalities.
  3. Climate change has far-reaching implications for managing disaster risk in India, as the frequency and intensity of flash floods, landslides, droughts, cyclones, and storm surges are expected to increase in upcoming decades.

Policy Implications – While significant achievements have been made in post-disaster response and reconstruction, there are still formidable challenges to reducing the risk of future disasters.

  1. Disaster management policies must incorporate programs to protect the most vulnerable segments of society—the poor, marginalized, women, children, disabled, and elderly.
  2. Mechanisms must be designed and adopted for transferring lessons learned for pre- and post-disaster management between communities.
  3. Given that natural disasters do not always follow national boundaries, cross-boundary issues of disaster management should be addressed through enhanced regional cooperation. Furthermore, an effective regional response system should be developed to pool capacity for mutual benefit.
  4. Left extremism is likely to be one of the most serious challenges to Indian security in the forthcoming decade if the government does not address basic issues of governance and accountability.
Notes of Srtmun university, Pune University, Aurangabad university, Mumbai university, Amravati university etc.

Dimensions of Disaster Management

Dimensions of Disaster Management

Business and Political Dimensions in Disaster Management

Business and industry have become, in the latter part of the 20th century, more competitive and more complex. Businesses today manage dangerous processes and complex technologies that carry with them a relatively small but very real risk of disaster (Perrow 1984). In the past twenty five years, crisis events of far-reaching magnitude in various industries have simultaneously focused attention on crisis management while at the same time sensitizing the public to hazards ranging from eating fast food to flying on commercial airlines. These events have occurred in various parts of the globe and have been notable for the extent of damage they have done to the firms involved as well as the public. In response, a literature on crisis management has developed that seeks to help business managers address these disasters.

MBA notes of study of 4th Sem. for Srtmun university, Pune university, Aurangabad university etc.,

The Scope of Disaster Management

Scope of Disaster Management

The term “disaster management” encompasses the complete realm of disaster-related activities. Traditionally people tend to think of disaster management only in terms of the post-disaster actions taken by relief and reconstruction officials; yet disaster management covers a much broader scope, and many modern disaster managers may find themselves far more involved in pre-disaster activities than in post-disaster response. This is because many persons who work in the development field, or who plan routine economic, urban, regional or agricultural development projects, have disaster management responsibilities. For example, housing specialists planning a low-income housing project in a disaster-prone area have the opportunity (and an obligation) to mitigate the impact of a future disaster if the houses incorporate disaster-resistant construction technologies. In the same manner, agricultural development projects must be planned in such a way that they help stem environmental degradation and thus lower the farmer’s vulnerability to losses from droughts, floods, cyclones, or other natural hazards. In fact, in dealing with natural hazards, the vast majority of disaster management activities are related to development projects; only a small portion are related to emergency response.

Of course, disaster management also encompasses the field of emergency assistance and long-term maintenance for refugees and displaced persons. The refugee field of disaster management is highly specialized and requires not only many development skills but also a broader awareness of political, legal, and humanitarian issues.

Above MBA notes is the Pune university, Aurangabad university, Srtmun university, Nagpur, university, Nanded university etc.,

Objective of Disaster Management

Objective of Disaster Management

Various Objective of Disaster Management. Purpose of Disaster Management.

Objective – Disaster management refers to the policies, programs, administrative actions and operations undertaken to address a natural or man-made disaster through preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery. Although the actions taken to address a specific disaster vary depending on the hazard, four objectives of disaster management apply to every situation.

  1. Reduce Damages and Deaths- Effective disaster management reduces or avoids morbidity, mortality, and economic and physical damages from a hazard. The methods used to achieve this include hazard and vulnerability analysis, preparedness, mitigation and prevention measures, and the use of predictive and warning systems. Examples of effective disaster management techniques include completing risk assessments, building community storm shelters and installing community outdoor siren systems.
  2. Reduce Personal Suffering- Disaster management reduces personal suffering, such as morbidity and emotional stress following a hazard. The methods used to prevent suffering include hazard and vulnerability analysis, preparedness, and mitigation and prevention measures. Examples of efforts to reduce personal suffering include providing safe food supplies and potable drinking water when water supplies become contaminated.
  3. Speed Recovery – The third objective is to speed recovery. The methods to accomplish this objective include effective response mechanisms and the institution of recovery programs and assistance. Examples of efforts to speed recovery include providing paperwork assistance for insurance claims, and grant or loan applications.
  4. Protect Victims – Disaster management provides protection to victims and/or displaced persons. Facilities utilize preparedness, response mechanisms, recovery programs and assistance to address shelter needs and provide protective services.

Other Objectives:

  1. to reduce or avoid the human, physical, and economic losses suffered by individuals, by the society, and by the country at large
  2. to reduce personal suffering
  3. to speed recovery

Above notes belongs to Subject of Disaster Management for the study of Srtmun, Pune, Mumbai, Nagpur, SGBAU universities.

Definition of Disaster Management

Definition of Disaster Management

What is Disaster Management? Definition of Disaster Management, Concept of Disaster Management

“Disaster management” can be defined as the range of activities designed to maintain control over disaster and emergency situations and to provide a framework for helping at-risk persons to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster. Disaster management deals with situations that occur prior to, during, and after the disaster.

Def. – Disaster Management can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.

Concept – When there is an unexpected situation, timely and accurate information as well as a network which is flexible to connect, helps in reinforcement of cooperation and self help activities in citizens and, also helps in assistance of staff members at the disaster site who are supported by the system of wide area assistance –

  1. Advanced data processing
  2. M2M
  3. Open Flow Different complex NW
  4. Emergency mobile NW
Disaster Management Subject of MBA study fourth semester of  SRTMUN, Pune, Aurangabad university etc.

Difference Between Agents and Suppliers

Difference Between Agents and Suppliers

Meaning of Agents. Meaning of Suppliers. What is the Difference Between Agents and Suppliers. Roles of Agents and Suppliers in business.

Most small and mid-sized enterprises (SMEs) rely on agents and distributors to do business on foreign markets. But very often the distinction between agents and distributors remain blurred and varies in different countries and industries, while it is extremely important to grasp their differences. Indeed, selecting the right and reliable trade partner (whether agent or distributor) and making sure that he will take on all expected activities, is a key success factor on international markets – So you should confirm those details in a contract.

  • Ownership of goods – Agents: Agents do not take ownership of goods. They have a role of representative of the supplier in the foreign market, and this supplier can be a manufacturer as well as a service provider. Distributors: Distributors purchase goods and resell them to local retailers or consumers. Therefore, they take title of the goods. They may also sell to other wholesalers, who then sell to retailers and other end users. In addition to this selling role, they generally provide support and after-sale services.
  • Revenue model – Agents: The agent is paid by the supplier (exporter) through a commission on the sales value generated. The exporter sets the selling price, with inputs on local market by the agent. Distributors: Distributors add a margin on top of the products’ prices and these fees are generally higher than agents’ fees. This margin affects directly the way you set the products’ prices. Suppliers often have to absorb the distributor margin in order to remove the risk of having a price to the end user which is too high.* *The distributor model is impossible to apply for some exporters as their profit margin would be too small to give enough margin to the distributor and to have a competitive price for the end user.
  • In-market operations – Agents: Customers’ orders come to the exporter through the agent, but they will then deliver, invoice and collect payments directly from the customers. On market operations of the agents are mainly sales activities and sales’ network development.

Distributors: Distributors take care of inventory – they hold stock in the market which reduces order lead time. They also extend credit for customers. They help pay and undertake marketing and promotion for the product abroad. They provide back-up services to clients. Overall, they carry most of the in-market risks and provide more services than agents, which is why there fees are generally higher than agents’ fees.

  • Product sales and risk of cannibalization – Agents: Agents usually have smaller product ranges than distributors as they are sole proprietorship or small structures. This means that they can provide more focus on your products. You also have more control on their sales technic and can more easily train them in order to sell your products better. Distributors: Most distributors represent and sell multiple products. As a consequence, it is difficult to identify distributors with 100% complementary product ranges (you may face some cannibalization). As they have other ranges of products, the distributors’ attention might be distracted from your product. In addition, you may not control their sales force and sales staff easily.

There are multiple advantages and disadvantages of working wither with trade agents or distributors. Overall, it is your own strategy, based on a deep analysis of the market, which will help you decide for one or another option.

Above notes part of MBA syllabus of various universities. like, Pune, Aurangabad, Srtmun etc.,

Types of Conflict

Types of Conflict

In the throes of conflict, it’s easy for people to get out of control. One way to bring focus to the issue is to determine whether the conflict is task-oriented or personal.

Task-Oriented Conflict

  • Is cognitive and focuses on ideas, not personalities.
  • Effect is neutral or positive.
  • Unrelated, or positively related, to group functioning.

Personal Conflict

  • Is emotional and focuses on people, not ideas.
  • Effect is negative.
  • Negatively related to group functioning.
  • Can escalate rapidly.
Notes of managerial communication subject of MBA Syllabus.

Elements of Efficient Organizational Structure

Elements of Efficient Organizational Structure

What is Organizational Structure? Elements of Organizational Structure in business?

  1. Employee Morale – High morale holds an organizational structure together. With high morale, productivity is elevated, and employees offer new ideas to help increase efficiency. Create incentive plans that offer pay to individuals who perform above expectations. Constantly compare the salaries and pay structures you are offering with other companies in your industry to remain competitive and encourage employee feedback on company issues. Try to hold company gatherings at least once a quarter, and maintain a culture of encouragement and growth that will inspire employees and garner employee loyalty.
  2. Communication – The structure of an organization is efficient only if it encourages clear communication across company lines, according to the Free Management Library. Departments must be able to speak to each other to ensure that day-to-day operations go smoothly. Employees must feel as though they can speak to managers to help employee development and to help resolve conflict. Managers need to have access to the executive team for clarification on important company policies and issues.
  3. Decision Making – Decision makers at all levels need to be clearly identified, according the Bridgespan Group business consultants. More important issues may need the president or chief executive’s approval, such as major vendor decisions or product concerns. Managers at all levels need authority to make decisions on issues that directly affect their departments or groups. A well-defined escalation policy can efficiently move issues up to higher levels of management, if necessary.

Destructive (negative and unhelpful) Responses. Destructive responses prolong and inflame conflict and get in the way of productivity. Trying to win no matter what, lack of respect for others, avoiding conflict and negatively expressing emotions are destructive. These behaviors will lead to:

  • Feelings of anger and frustration.
  • Judgmental actions.
  • Getting even and keeping score.
  • Parties not having needs met.
  • Closed channels of communication.
  • Refusal to deal with issues.
  • Decreased self-confidence.
  • Incomplete tasks.
  • Decreased team performance.

If your work environment shows the signs of destructive responses, you’ll want to identify the behaviors that are undermining resolution and rein them in. Set new norms and expectations for handling disagreements and begin to develop the skills that lead to more constructive outcomes.

Organizational Structure of business explain in above notes its belongs to MBA Syllabus of SRTMUN, PUNE, AURANGABAD Universities.

Organizational structure and conflict management

Organizational structure and conflict management:

Galbraith’s Star Model of organizational design. Organization design can be defined narrowly, as the process of reshaping organization structure and roles, or it can more effectively be defined as the alignment of structure, process, rewards, metrics and talent with the strategy of the business.

Conflict management is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting.

Organizational design:

Organizational design

Conflict management:

Conflict management

Wherever people work together, occasional conflict is inevitable. What sets one organization apart from another is how people respond to conflict when it does arise. Although disagreements take place between individuals, organizational culture can affect how often people argue, conflict resolution style and what most disagreements are about. While some conflict is productive, other types aren’t. Manage your organization to encourage positive change through conflict resolution, and avoid fights that only produce division and frustration.

  1. Conflict Styles – The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, a method of assessing conflict resolution style that has been around for more than 30 years. According to this model, there are five modes of conflict resolution: competing, accommodating, avoiding, collaborating and compromising. Everyone’s capable of using all five styles, although most people rely on one type more than others. Although all five approaches have their place, the collaborative approach is ideal in most workplace situations. It involves searching for the root of the problem and finding a solution that’s equally satisfactory to both parties. Organizational culture affects the conflict style employees use. For example, if your company is based on an “every man for himself” mentality, chances are you’ll have more competitors and fewer collaborators.
  2. Leadership – Strong leadership at the top allows people to use a collaborative approach to conflict more often. Without a clear, communicated vision of where the company is going, people can get into disagreements that go beyond the surface level as every person in the organization struggles to develop top-level goals and a defining identity. When a strong manager develops a mission and communicates objectives to the team, people have common ground to work from to address conflict collaboratively. If conflict is a big problem in your business, consider whether you’re providing enough guidance to allow people to work as a team.
  3. Top Skills – No matter your industry or organizational culture, there are steps managers can take to reduce conflict and make the experience of dealing with it more positive. The Psychometrics study said that management must proactively address underlying tensions before an explosive conflict emerges. When you’re making a big change in your company, take the time to seek out opinions and understand how people feel about it before moving forward. Modeling the right behavior is also important. If you want your employees to take a collaborative approach to conflict resolution, take that approach yourself, whether you’re negotiating pay with a new employee or determining strategic direction with a business partner.
  4. Accentuate (prominent) the Positive – Conflict isn’t something to be avoided at all costs. In fact, approaching conflict with a positive attitude is the best way to make the most of it and emerge at the end of the tunnel with a more creative solution or a better plan than before. Communicate this positive view of conflict to your team and people will be more likely to work together than bump heads. Include a commitment to collaboration and teamwork in your mission statement.

Organizational structure and conflict management notes of Management Communication from the SRTMUN, Aurangabad, Nanded, Amravati, Pune University.